Importance of Abdominal Compression Valsalva Maneuver and Microbubble Grading in Contrast Transthoracic Echocardiography for Detecting Patent Foramen Ovale
CME Information: 2 Credits
Release date: February 2020 Valid through February 2021
Introduction/Statement of Need:
Although transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) may be useful for patent foramen ovale (PFO) screening, the optimal methodologies remain unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the efﬁcacy of the abdominal compression Valsalva maneuver and identify the optimal cutoff value of microbubbles in contrast TTE for detecting PFO, compared with transesophageal echocardiography and catheterization as the reference.
This activity is designed for all cardiac sonographers and cardiovascular physicians with a primary interest and knowledge base in the field of echocardiography; in addition, physician assistants, pediatricians, residents, researchers, clinicians, intensivists, and other medical professionals.
At the end of this activity the reader will better be able to:
Recognize the diagnostic/therapeutic implications of accurate diagnosis of PFO in stroke patients
Understand the advantages and disadvantages of TTE versus TEE in screening for PFO
Identify the different maneuvers used for PFO detection during contrast TTE and TEE and understand their diagnostic utility
Understand how adequacy of Valsalva maneuver was determined in this study
Recognize the limitations of agitated saline contrast echocardiography (both by TTE and TEE) for the detection of PFO
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The American Society of Echocardiography designates this enduring material for a maximum of 2.0 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditsTM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Successful completion of this CME activity, which includes participation in the evaluation component, enables the participant to earn up to 2.0 MOC point in the American Board of Internal Medicine's (ABIM). Participants will earn MOC points equivalent to the amount of CME credits claimed for the activity. It is the CME activity provider's responsibility to submit participant completion information to ACCME for the purpose of granting ABIM MOC credit.
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According to ACCME policy, ASE implemented mechanisms to resolve all conflicts of interest prior to the planning and implementation of this activity.
The following authors reported no actual or potential conflicts of interest in relation to this document:
Yoichi Takaya, MD, Nobuhisa Watanabe, RDCS, Madoka Ikeda, RDCS, Teiji Akagi, MD, Rie Nakayama, MD, Koji Nakagawa, MD, Norihisa Toh, MD, and Hiroshi Ito, MD, Okayama, Japan
The following authors reported relationships with one or more commercial interests in relation to this document: None
The following CME reviewers, ASE Staff and JASE editors reported no actual or potential conflicts of interest in relation to this document: Jennifer Goss, Medical education specialist, Danita Sanborn MD, MMSc, FASE, Jennifer Betz, BS, RDCS, FASE, Mann Corritti, MD
Method of Participation: Online Only
Estimated Time to Complete this Activity: 2 hours
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